Provence’s countryside & various landforms
France’s most diversified region
Provence has more than 10,000 km (6,000 mi) of marked trails, on a territory whose diversity is exceptional : more than 400 km of coastline, every topographic level from the sea to high mountain, including several summits above 3,000 meters.
Even in the non-Alpine part of Provence, which represents more than a half of the total surface, the land relief is mainly rugged and often steep and rocky. Apart from the extreme southwestern area, where the Rhone river winds its way to the Mediterranean Sea, plains and valleys are rare and not very large. They are often penetrated and flanked by mountain chains which can rise abruptly : the most obvious example is probably Mont Sainte Victoire, that stands up 800 meters above the Arc valley, 9 km to the east of Aix-en-Provence. Many cultivated districts, with vineyards or olive groves, are crowned with hills between 500 and 1,000 meters. Plateaus also are a significant element of non-Alpine Provence’s land relief.
Another spectacular trait of Provence’s landscapes is the presence of several canyons, among which the Verdon Gorge.
An average of some 7 ½ hrs of sunshine a day
Its varied and beautiful landscapes are emphasized by the intense light giving birth to bright colors and contrasts. This special light is due to the Mediterranean climate that dominates, except in the Alpine area where the mountain climate becomes predominant as the height above sea level increases.
A great number of these days when the sky is deep blue is due to the mistral wind, which is an essential element of the Provençal climate. First parallel to the Rhône valley, where it is quite frequent, this dry north wind then blows eastward along the Mediterranean sea. It can be strong and cold, and may persist for several days.
An extraordinary diversity of plants and trees
Provence boasts the four-fifths of French flora on less than one fifth of the country’s surface. In order to adapt dryness, most of plants and trees have small and persistant leaves, often glossy on top to reflect the solar radiation and reduce heating, and hairy underneath to keep moisture. They bloom early, sometimes in winter, mainly in the spring. Few blossom in summer which is a season when vegetals are at rest because of an intense heat and sometimes long draughts.
Vegetation is closely dependent on the climatic conditions and on the elevation.
At low altitude, if the original forest is the evergreen (or holm) oak, forests are today dominated by pine trees. But a great part of hills are covered by shrubland caracterized by small, evergreen and mainly prickly trees. The areas lying higher can be covered by different types of vegetation : the downy oak forest, where the main tree is at times associated with several species of maple and of rowan ; the scotch pine and the black pine forest . From about 1,000 meters above sea level, as the mountain climate dominates, the Mediterranean species become less present : the beech tree forest is the most common, associated with conifers such as fir, larch and mountain pine.
On cultivated lands, olive trees are the most widespread trees. But some areas, especially in the wide valleys of the Rhône and Durance rivers, have been substancially planted with fruit trees (apple, peach, apricot, cherry, plum, fig, etc) since the 1970s thanks to the expansion of irrigation. The major agriculture activity in Provence remain wine growing, which provides, as cereals cultivation and sheep /goat breeding do, open landscapes.